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What are Cardiovascular Diseases?

Cardiovascular diseases are a set of problems that affect the heart and blood vessels, causing diseases and serious complications to the person's health, such as heart attack, heart failure, arrhythmias, stroke or other types of changes in blood circulation.

These diseases generally affect more men than women over the age of 50. The risk of developing cardiovascular disease is much higher in people with high cholesterol, diabetes, high blood pressure and unhealthy lifestyle habits, such as a sedentary lifestyle, obesity or high levels of stress, so in most cases it is possible to prevent these diseases.

It is important that these diseases are prevented because, in addition to causing several uncomfortable symptoms, such as shortness of breath, chest pain and swelling in the body, they are the main cause of death worldwide. 


Most Common Cardiovascular Diseases

Two types of cardiovascular diseases can be considered: those with symptoms, such as angina or cardiac arrhythmias, and those with atherosclerosis or hypertension, which generally have no symptoms. These, because they are silent, are reasons to look for the cardiologist regularly, for routine check-ups, especially for those who already have a family history of heart disease.

The most common heart diseases are:

  1. Hypertension;

  2. Acute myocardial infarction;

  3. Angina pectoris;

  4. Heart valve disease;

  5. Congenital heart diseases;

  6. Endocarditis;

  7. Cardiac arrhythmias;

  8. Myocarditis;

  9. Tumors in the heart.

Cardiovascular diseases are more common in people over 50 and in the elderly, and can be the result of unhealthy habits throughout life, such as poor diet, smoking, sedentary lifestyle or excessive stress.

Main Symptoms

The symptoms of cardiovascular diseases are variable, and are usually associated with the type of disease that the person has and the organs most affected, ranging from silent stages to those in which the person already has serious limitations, such as difficulty breathing, chest pain , fainting, changes in heart rate or swelling in the legs.  

Usually, symptoms only begin to appear in stages in which the disease is already installed, making its prevention difficult, and it is very important to carry out complementary medical exams to make the correct diagnosis and start treatment as soon as possible, both to relieve symptoms. how to prevent the worsening of the picture.

Risk factors

The causes of cardiovascular diseases are the most diverse, but they can be related to the individual's lifestyle and diet. Therefore, the main risk factors are:  

  • Age: individuals over 50 years of age have a higher risk of having cardiovascular disease;

  • Gender: men are usually more affected by cardiovascular problems;

  • Family history of cardiovascular diseases;

  • Cigarette;

  • High cholesterol;

  • Hypertension;

  • Obesity;

  • Sedentary life;

  • Diabetes;

  • Oral contraceptives;

  • Bad eating habits;

  • Stress.


All these risk factors facilitate the formation of lesions and the accumulation of fatty plaques in the blood vessels, called atherosclerosis, in addition to other changes in blood circulation, responsible for cardiovascular diseases.  

How to treat?

The treatment of cardiovascular diseases should be indicated by the cardiologist, and its main objective is to prevent the worsening of the problem. Thus, in addition to changes in life habits, to make them healthier, medications can be indicated to control symptoms, blood pressure, heartbeat or blood sugar and cholesterol levels, reducing the risk of injury to the body. .

Some examples of commonly used medications include:

  • Antihypertensives: Captopril, Enalapril, Losartan, Hydrochlorothiazide;

  • Diuretics: Furosemide, Spironolactone;

  • Beta-blocking agents: Propranolol, Carvedilol, Metoprolol;

  • Anticoagulants: Marevan, Coumadin, Rivaroxaban;

  • Statins: Simvastatin, Atorvastatin.  


It is a fundamental part of the treatment to have a diet low in fat and sugar, consuming more vegetables and fruits throughout the day, also restricting foods rich in carbohydrates.  

How to avoid?

The prevention of cardiovascular diseases is the best way to avoid the onset of these diseases. Some tips to prevent cardiovascular disease can be:

  • Stop smoking;

  • Control of blood pressure, blood sugar and fat levels, with the use of medication and following the doctor's guidelines;

  • Healthy eating, avoiding fats and eating more vegetables, fruits and cereals;

  • Practice physical exercise regularly, at least 30-60 minutes, 3-5 times a week;

  • Avoid consumption of alcoholic beverages;


In addition, for people who are overweight, it is recommended to lose weight, as it is proven that the accumulation of fat is very harmful to cardiovascular health.


Source: Your Health

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